Politisasi Agenda Keamanan Siber Pada Era Industri 4.0 di Forum Multilateral

Hino Samuel Jose

Abstract


Keamanan siber dalam forum multilateral masih mengalami perdebatan dan tantangan hingga saat ini di tahun 2021. Forum multilateral selain menjadi sarana kerjasama bagi para negara untuk mencari solusi bersama juga menjadi ruang untuk para aktor mengedepankan politisasi kepentingan mereka dalam agenda multilateral. Isu strategis dan substantif dari keamanan siber hingga saat ini sudah meluas ke konflik geopolitik sehingga terjadi redefinisi dari alam keamanan siber itu sendiri yang berpengaruh ke forum multilateral. Artikel ini menggunakan penelitian kualitatif menggunakan data sekunder untuk menganalisa berbagai sub konteks yang relevan. Artikel ini akan membahas bagaimana politisasi keamanan siber dilakukan di forum multilateral pada era 4.0. Artikel ini juga membahas mengenai peran pemerintah yang diredefinisi oleh kebutuhan akan peran industri dan non-state actor dalam dinamika multilateral untuk agenda keamanan siber.


Keywords


Keamanan siber; Multilateral; Politik Siber; Diplomasi; Teknologi

Full Text:

PDF

References


Akoto, W. (2021). International trade and cyber conflict: Decomposing the effect of trade on state-sponsored cyber attacks. Journal of Peace Researc. doi:10.1177%2F0022343320964549

Alam, T., Antony, A., Hotama, K., & Kuswandi, S. (2019). Revolusi Industri Keempat: Akhir Dari Buruh di Seluruh Dunia. Jurnal Hubungan Internasional, 12(2), 229-244. doi:10.20473/jhi.v12i2.13311

Bambauer, D. (2012). Conundrum. Minnesota Law Review, 96(2), 584-674.

Basyar, M. (2020). Etika Perang Dalam Islam dan Teori Just War. Jurnal Penelitian Politik, 17(1), 17-30. doi:10.14203/jpp.v17i1.854

Behrent, M. (2013). Foucault and technology. History and Technology, 29(1), 54-104. doi:10.1080/07341512.2013.780351

Brenner, S., & Crescenzi, A. (2006). State-sponsored crime: The futility of the economic espionage act. Houston Journal of International Law, 28(2), 389-465.

Bryman, A. (2008). Social research methods. New York: Oxford University Press.

Bulter, R., & Lachow, I. (2012, Desember). Multilateral Approaches For Improving Global Security in Cyberspace. Retrieved Juni 18, 2021, from MITRE: https://www.mitre.org/publications/technical-papers/multilateral-approaches-for-improving-global-security-in-cyberspace

Buzan, B., Waever, O., & Wilde, J. (1998). Security: A New Framework for Analysis. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publisher.

Castellacci, F., & Tveito, V. (2018). Internet use and well-being: A survey and a theoretical framework. Research Policy, 47(1), 308-325. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2017.11.007

Castells, M. (2000). The Contours of the Network Society. Foresight, 2(2), 151-157. doi:10.1108/14636680010802591

Chernenko, E., Demidov, O., & Lukyanov, F. (2018, Februari 23). Increasing International Cooperation in Cybersecurity and Adapting Cyber Norms. Retrieved Juni 19, 2021, from Council on Foreign Relations: https://www.cfr.org/report/increasing-international-cooperation-cybersecurity-and-adapting-cyber-norms

CSIS. (2021). Significat Cyber Incidents Since 2006. Retrieved February 12, 2021, from Center for Strategic and International Studies: https://www.csis.org/programs/strategic-technologies-program/significant-cyber-incidents

Denning, P., & Frailey, D. (2011). The Profession of IT: Who Are We-Now? Communications of the ACM, 54(6), 25-27. doi:10.1145/1953122.1953133

Dunn, M., & Wenger, A. (2019). Cyber security meets security politics: Complex technology, fragmented politics, and networked science. Contemporary Security Policy, 41(1), 5-32. doi:10.1080/13523260.2019.1678855

European Commission. (2021, Maret 8). The EU Cybersecurity Act brings a strong agency for cybersecurity and EU-wide rules on cybersecurity certification. Retrieved Juni 18, 2021, from European Commission: https://digital-strategy.ec.europa.eu/en/news/eu-cybersecurity-act-brings-strong-agency-cybersecurity-and-eu-wide-rules-cybersecurity

Farrell, H., & Newman, A. (2019). Weaponized Globalization: Huawei and the Emerging Battle over 5G Networks. Retrieved Juni 19, 2021, from Global Asia: https://www.globalasia.org/v14no3/cover/weaponized-globalization-huawei-and-the-emerging-battle-over-5g-networks_henry-farrellabraham-newman

Fidler, D. P. (2017). The U.S. Election Hacks, Cybersecurity, and International Law. Maurer School of Law Repository. Retrieved from https://www.repository.law.indiana.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3607&context=facpub

Finnemore, M., & Sikkink, K. (1998). International Norm Dynamics and Political Change. International Organization, 52(4), 887-917. doi:10.1162/002081898550789

Hamonangan, I., & Assegaff, Z. (2020). Cyber Diplomacy: Menuju Masyarakat Internasional yang Damai di Era Digital. Padjadjaran Journal of International Studies, 12(2), 342-352.

Hern, A. (2018, Februari 26). North Korea is a bigger cyber-attack threat than Russia, says expert. Retrieved Juni 18, 2021, from The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/feb/26/north-korea-cyber-attack-threat-russia

Indrawan, R., & Efriza. (2017). Bela Negara Sebagai Metode Pencegahan Ancamana Radikalisme di Indonesia. Jurnal Pertahanan dan Bela Negara, 7(3), 1-17. doi:10.33172/jpbh.v7i3.226

ITU. (n.d.). ITU-T in Brief. Retrieved Juni 18, 2021, from International Telecommunication Union: https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/about/Pages/default.aspx

Johnson, M. (2018). Inclusion and exclusion in the digital economy: disability and mental health as a live streamer on Twitch.tv. Information, Communication & Society, 22(3), 506-520. doi:10.1080/1369118X.2018.1476575

Kehoe, B. P. (1992). Zen and the Art of the Internet: A Beginner's Guide to the Internet . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall .

Kiggins, R. (2018). Big Data, Artificial Intelligence, and Autonomous Policy Decision Making: A Crisis in International Relations Theory? In R. Kiggins (Ed.), The Political Economy of Robots: Prospects for Prosperity and Security in the Automated 21st Century. London: Palgrave Macmillan. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-51466-6_10

Kim, S. (2014). Cyber Security and Middle Power Diplomacy: A Network Perspective. The Korean Journal of International Studies, 12(2), 323-352.

Lamont, C. (2015). Research Methods in International Relations. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publishing.

Leese, M., & Hoijtink, M. (2019). Technology and agency in international relations. London: Routledge.

Liaropoulos, A. (2013). Great Power Politics in Cyberspace: U.S. And China Are Drawing the Lines Between Confrontation and Cooe. In M. Majer, & R. Ondrejcsak (Eds.), PANORAMA of global security environment (pp. 155-166). Bratislava: Centre for European and North Atlantic Affairs.

Maness, R., & Valeriano, B. (2015). Russia's Coercive Diplomacy - Energy, Cyber and Maritime Policy as New Sources of Power. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Marsheimer, J. (2001). The Tragedy of Great Power Politics. New York: W. W. Norton.

McCharty, D. (Ed.). (2018). Technology and world poltiics: An Introduction. London: Routledge.

Miller, G., Nakashima, E., & Entous, A. (2017, June 23). Obama's Secret Struggle To Punish Russia for Putin's Election Assault. Retrieved December 15, 2020, from The Washington Post: https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2017/world/national-security/obama-putin-election-hacking/?utm_term=.1042ee4d8dcf

MoFA of the Russian Federation. (2016, Desember 5). Doctrine of Information Security of the Russian Federation. Retrieved Juni 18, 2021, from The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation: https://www.mid.ru/en/foreign_policy/official_documents/-/asset_publisher/CptICkB6BZ29/content/id/2563163

Muller, L. (2015). Cyber Security Capacity Building in Developing Countries: Challenge and Opportunities (Vol. 3). Oslo: Norwegian Institute of International Affairs.

NATO. (2013). Cyber Timeline. Retrieved February 12, 2021, from North Atlantic Treaty Organization: https://www.nato.int/docu/review/2013/cyber/timeline/en/index.htm

Nugroho, K. (2018). Pengaruh Cyber Attack terhadap Kebijakan Cyber Security Amerika Serikat. Journal of International Relations, 4(3), 393-401.

ODNI. (2017). Assessing Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent US Elections. Intelligence Community Assessment . Retrieved from http://www.dni.gov/files/documents/ICA_2017_01.pdf

Parsi, T. (2008). Treacherous Alliance: The Secret Dealings of Israel, Iran and the United States. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Passas, N. (2003). Cross-border crime and the interface between legal and illegal actors'. Security Journal, 16(1), 19-38. doi:10.1057/palgrave.sj.8340123

Pope, A. E. (2018). Cyber-securing our elections. Journal of Cyber Policy, 3(1), 24-38. doi:DOI: 10.1080/23738871.2018.1473887

Pradnyana, I. P., & Rofii, M. S. (2020). Cyberterrorism Threats in Indonesia and State Responses. Literatus Journal, 2(2), 181-192. doi:https://doi.org/10.37010/lit.v2i2.92

Pratama, R. (2016). Penggunaan Cyberwar Melalui Stuxnet Project Oleh Amerika Serika Dalam Merespon Perkembangan Proyek Nuklir Iran di Natanz. Jurnal Analisis Hubungan Internasional, 5(2), 378-386.

Reiter, J. (2021, Maret 2021). A Multilateral Approach to 5G Safety. Retrieved Juni 19, 2021, from Real Clear Policy: https://www.realclearpolicy.com/articles/2021/03/29/a_multilateral_approach_to_5g_safety_770138.html

Sari, L. (2018). Bentuk Kebijakan Amerika Serikat Terhadap Ancaman Cyber Crime China Sebagai Bentuk Upaya Proteksianisme Terhadap Keamanan Nasional. Jurnal Kajian Pemerintah, 4(1). doi:10.25299/jkp.2018.vol4(1).5307

Schmidt, M. (Ed.). (2013). Talilinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Sherman, J., & Raymond, M. (2019, Desember 4). The U.N. passed a Russia-backed cybercrime resolution. That’s not good news for Internet freedom. Retrieved Juni 19, 2021, from Washington Post: https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2019/12/04/un-passed-russia-backed-cybercrime-resolution-thats-not-good-news-internet-freedom/

Stadnik, I. (2017). What is an International Cybersecurity Regime and How We Can Achieve It? Masaryk University Journal of Law and Technology, 11(1), 129-154. doi:10.5817/MUJLT2017-1-7

Tekir, G. (2020). Huawei, 5G Networks, and Digital Geopolitics. International Journal of Politics and Society, 2(4), 113-135.

UNIDIR. (2017). The United Nations, Cyberspace and International Peace and Security: Responding to Complexity in the 21st Century . Geneva: UNIDIR .

Valuch, J., Gabris, T., & Hamulak, O. (2017). Cyber Attacks, Information Attacks, and Postmodern Warfare. Baltic Journal of Law & Politics, 10(1), 64-89. doi:10.1515/bjlp-2017-0003

Ventre, D. (2011). Cyberwar and Information Warfare. London: ISTE.

Volz, D. (2018, March 22). U.S. spending bill to provide $380 million for election cyber security. Retrieved December 15, 2020, from Reuters: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-fiscal-congress-cyber-idUSKBN1GX2LC

Walker, S. (2019). CYBER-INSECURITIES? A Guide to the UN Cybercrime Debate . Geneva: Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime .

Weiss, G. (1996). The Farewell Dossier: Duping the Soviets. CIA Studies in Intelligence. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/

White House. (2011, Mei). International Strategy for Cyberspace. Retrieved Juni 18, 2021, from Obama White House: https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/sites/default/files/rss_viewer/international_strategy_for_cyberspace.pdf

Zerzri, M. (2017). The Threat of Cyber Terrorism and Recommendations for Countermeasures. Center for Applied Policy Research. Retrieved from https://www.cap-lmu.de/download/2017/CAPerspectives-Tunisia-2017-04.pdf




DOI: https://doi.org/10.37631/populika.v9i2.390

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 301 times
PDF - 307 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Lisensi Creative Commons
Ciptaan disebarluaskan di bawah Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi 4.0 Internasional.

 

View My Stats